TCP/IP is the backbone of communication over internet. Now there are two versions of Internet protocol available IP version 4 and version 6 for communication over the network layer. The key difference between these two are an IPv4 address is 32 bits and expressed in dotted-decimal notation whereas an IPv6 address is 128 bits in length and expressed in hexadecimal format.

IPv4 versus IPv6 representation

  • IP version 4

What is OAuth 2.0

If you are software developer on web, chances are you have heard of OAuth 2.0. It is a security protocol used to protect a large number of web APIs. OAuth 2.0 allows a software to access web APIs. In many ways OAuth 2.0 can be considered as a “valet key” for API resources, not all cars will have a valet key but valet key provides an additional security for your car. You can restrict access with valet key as ignition only and prevent access to glove box and boot. Similarly with OAuth 2.0 …


What is a monoid

Let’s consider algebra of string concatenation. We can add “foo” + “bar” to get “foobar”. Algebra refers to the laws associated with the operation. Laws associated with the operation are

  • Existence of an identity element
(S + "") => s
("" + s) => s
  • Law of associativity
Consider 3 strings p,q and rp + (q + r) = (p + q ) + r

The exact same laws govern integer addition. It is associative (x+y)+z = x+(y+z). Also there exists an identity element (0). Ditto for multiplication operation (identity element is 1). …


Some histories of Linux begin with this message posted by Linus Torvalds to the comp.os.minix newsgroup on August 25,1991.

Hello everybody out there using minix - I'm doing a (free) operating system (just a hobby, won't be big and professional like gnu) for 386(486) AT clones. This has been brewing since April, and is starting to get ready. I'd like any feedback on things people like/dislike in minix, as my OS resembles it somewhat (same physical layout of the file-system (due to practical reasons) among other things). I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work. This implies…


Functional Programming (FP) is a simple premise with far reaching implication. We construct our programs using only pure functions — means functions that have no side effects.

Difference between Object Oriented and functional programming

What are side effects ?

In simple terms a function has side effects if it does anything other than simply returning a value.

krishnaprasad k

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